- PublicationImplementing the IFSA investment account: a risk-sharing banking modelSiti Muawanah Lajis; Hissam Kamal Hassan; Adam Shishani; Omar Alaeddin; Said Bouheraoua; Noor Suhaida Kasri (International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA), 2016)
Recent calls for risk-sharing - as expounded in the 2012 Kuala Lumpur Declaration, the 2014 Jeddah Declaration and the 2014 International Monetary Fund statement - elucidate the present situation of Islamic banking and finance: an acknowledgement that risk sharing is a "salient characteristic" of Islamic financial transactions on the one hand and that it is "not deeply embedded" on the other. The objective of this practical evidence-based research paper is to address this schism between prescription and practice. It recapitulates the principles underpinning risk sharing and the reasons why it is integral to the Shar??ah and why (as stated in the Declaration) risk transfer and risk shifting violate a Shari'ah principle. he paper presents preliminary research utilizing empirical data from Malaysian Islamic banks and the Malaysian stock market as a proxy for the real economy. It considers newly enacted Malaysian legislation, the Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 (IFSA), from the perspective of its aim to more clearly define the products and activities of Islamic banks.
- PublicationIstijrar: an alternative solution to murabahah-based import financing facilities under letter of credit-I in MalaysiaMuhamad Nasir Haron; Aniza Rahaya Zulkifli; Marjan Muhammad; Mezbah Uddin Ahmed (International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA), 2020)
Islamic banks provide similar trade finance facilities to those of conventional banks. They intermediate between buyers (i.e., importers) and sellers (i.e., exporters), act as a custodian of documents, and provide means to reduce payment risks via different payment terms (e.g., open account, documentary collection and letter of credit (LC)). They also provide financing - as need be - to help with working capital tied to the trade transactions. This research focuses only on financing by Islamic banks to importers that involve LCs. Different underlying Shari'ah contracts are used for import financing facilities under LC, the most common being the murabahah contract. At the time of sale, the existence of the subject matter and its ownership by the seller are the key requirements for the validity of a murabahah contract. In the absence of either of these requirements, the contract is considered null and void.
- PublicationCorporate waqf via initial public offering (IPO): a viable instrument for the sustainability of Malaysia's higher learning institutionsNoor Suhaida Kasri; Sa'id Adekunle Mikail; Mohamed Ibrahim Negasi; Mahadi Ahmad; Sa'id Adekunle Mikail; Noor Suhaida Kasri (International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA), 2020)
The need for sustainable funding of institutions of higher learning led the Government of Malaysia to formulate its Universities Transformation Programme 2015-2025. This transformation agenda came out as the Purple Book which highlighted the need to address the funding gap that may occur in the education sector in the event of unexpected budget cuts. It called for the enhancement of income generation, endowments and waqf to achieve self-sustainability for higher learning institutions (Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, 2016). Based on the above premise, this research explores the viability of corporate waqf via initial public offering (IPO) as an instrument to raise funds and sustain Malaysia's higher learning institutions. Corporate waqf, as defined by the Securities Commission Malaysia, refers to: A type of corporate [financial] instrument where liquid-asset-like shares or securities [are] endowed as waqf assets and [sic] thus enabling the waqf institutions to benefit from the dividend that can finance any welfare project or initiative (Securities Commission Malaysia 2014, p. 17).
- PublicationUnearned wakalah fee in the takaful industry in Malaysia: a critical analysisSa'id Adekunle Mikail; Fares Djafri; Burhanuddin Lukman; Mahadi Ahmad; Sa'id Adekunle Mikail; Fares Djafri (International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA), 2021)
The issue of unearned wakalah fees (UWF) arises due to the statutory requirements in the Islamic Financial Services Act (IFSA 2013) that mandate takaful operators to refund any undue contribution with the corresponding wakaah fee in the event of surrender or termination of a takaful certificate. The relevant statutory provisions and Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) guidelines on the valuation basis for liabilities of family and general takaful are open to more than one interpretation, and the exact definition and components of money not due are not clear. The implementation of the statutory provisions and regulatory guidelines on the refund of UWF has raised the following issues for the Malaysian takaful industry: 1. How to determine UWF and its components from money not due that must be refunded as stated in the statutory provisions and BNM guidelines? 2. What are the Shari'ah justifications, if any, to support the requirements for refund in the event of surrender? 3. How to resolve any Shari'ah and technical issues pertaining to the implementation of the refund of UWF due to lack of clarity regarding its definition and components? Accordingly, this paper delineates the concept and components of the wakalah contract, its salient features, contractual relationship, subject matter, including the wakalah fee, and juristic deliberations regarding it. It also examines the background and means of identifying UWF by explaining its subject and components, differences between earned and unearned wakalah fee, and the treatment of UWF. Further, it studies Shari'ah and technical issues related to recognition, calculation and refund of UWF and other surrender values.
- PublicationShari'ah analysis of zakat on sukukMezbah Uddin Ahmed; Moutaz Abojeib; Mahadi Ahmad; Mezbah Uddin Ahmed (International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA), 2021)
Sukuk in its contemporary form as a financial instrument has gained prominence only over the last one to two decades. Like a share, a sukuk is defined as an instrument representing undivided ownership over the underlying assets. Naturally, the question arises whether sukuk are subject to the same zakat rulings as shares. Accordingly, this research has identified the similarities between shares and Sukuk. The zakat rulings applicable to shares are also identified, and the research has made an attempt to apply those rulings in the context of sukuk. However, the research has identified the peculiarities of sukuk as it is currently practiced in the global market and provided fresh insights on how these may impact the applicability of zakat to sukuk. While the research includes theoretical Shari'ah analysis and discussion on various relevant zakat matters, it also reviews today's practices. Accordingly, relevant Shari'ah standards and requirements of various jurisdictions are identified, and several sukuk prospect uses are examined in relation to zakat calculation and disclosures. By this the research aims at enabling a coherent understanding of the theory and practice.
- PublicationIslamic finance: Shariah and the SDGs - thoughts leadership series part 4 - October 2021Younes Soualhi; Fares Djafri (Islamic Finance Council UK, 2021)
This report is the last part of a four-part thought leadership series delivered by the International Shari'ah Research Academy for Islamic Finance (ISRA) in partnership with the Islamic Finance Council UK (UKIFC). The series is intended to inspire IFIs to embrace the SDGs and demonstrate to the world that consideration for people, planet and purpose can coexist with profit and form the heart of the next generation of Islamic financial products. This part will mainly document the current level of knowledge, understanding and perspectives on the SDGs amongst key IF industry stakeholders, primarily Shariah scholars. The concept of sustainable development was articulated for the first time in the Brundtland Report, also called "Our Common Future", published in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) and supported by the UN. According to the Report, sustainable development is defined as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
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