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Showing results 1050 to 1069 of 1635
  • nature_money_modern_economy_implications_consequences_stephen_robert_mabid.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mahmoud Al-Jarhi, Mabid Ali Mohamed (2016)

  • Reforming the contemporary monetary and financial system has come under the limelight with the onset of the last international financial crisis. Zarlenga and Poteat focus on the elimination of credit money and the return of the exclusive right of issuing money to the government as a key to reforming the system. In this comment, I argue that they are right, but reform should be wider and more comprehensive. My arguments are inspired by al-Jarhi's model of an Islamic monetary system (1981).

  • The_need_for_Shariah_governance_framework_for_Islamic_crowdfunding_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Ahmed Aban Zubair; Aishath Muneeza (2021)

  • The concept of crowdfunding entails the process of financing an idea, a project, a person or a cause through the collection of small amounts of money from a large number of providers. There are four types of crowdfunding namely lending or P2P crowdfunding, donation-based, reward-based and equity-based. Islamic crowdfunding provides an opportunity for investors, donors and entrepreneurs to support the socio-economic development of the micro and small enterprises sector in Islamic countries. In the absence of a proper Shariah governance framework applicable for Islamic crowdfunding, there could be cases in which Shariah non-compliance circumstances could occur, and without the implement...

  • The_need_to_digitize_sukuk_issuance_amid_Covid-19_crisis_Aishath et al.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Sherin Kunhibava; Zakariya Mustapha; Aishath Muneeza; Auwal Adam Sa'ad; Mohammad Ershadul Karim (2022)

  • Covid-19 pandemic was a health crisis that plunged the world into economic turmoil due to its resultant national lockdowns across economies which brought business and market activities to a standstill. In order to adapt to ensuing restrictions owing to the pandemic, forge ahead in a new way of living, work and interactions with one another (new normal), digitizing business and market operations is considered a necessary option. Sukuk is an essential Islamic capital market product whose operations involve multiple parties/intermediaries alongside some technical financial, administrative and legal/shariah processes. On this note, this chapter aims to study and examine the need for digit...

  • Need_to_pioneer_Islamic_tourism_tourist_resorts_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Aishath Muneeza; Zakariya Mustapha; Fathimath Nashwa Badeeu; Aminath Reesha Nafiz (2020)

  • The purpose of this paper is to formulate ways in which Maldives could pioneer Islamic tourism on a befitting framework and financing structure as a leverage to develop its tourism industry. The research uses qualitative approach whereby primary and empirical data on tourism practices as well as relevant laws and guidelines, issued in Maldives and in other Muslim jurisdictions of the Muslim, are analyzed. Doctrinal approach is used in analyzing secondary data on the subject. The research reveals the potential of Islamic tourism in Maldives as well as the challenges that have constrained its development in the country. Certainty is needed in halal products, services and conducts. Codif...

  • Need_to_redefine_Islamic_finance_in_the_light_of_maqasid_al_shariah_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: M. Kabir Hassan; Aishath Muneeza; Mehmet Sarac (2021)

  • The history of Islamic finance began with the inception of Islam in the world. However, the modern institutionalization of Islamic finance began in the 1960s with the establishement of the first Islamic bank, Mit Ghamr in Egypt in 1963. prior to this, Islamic finance was practices in isolation at an informal level in communities where Muslims wanted to practice muamalat or commercial matters in accordance with Islamic law. These ad hoc practices were customized as pert the requirement of the societies and the benefits from these practices were enjoyed by Muslims of selected communities. When institutionalization of Islamic began, the compatibility of it with the conventional financial...

  • new_evidence_from_an_alternative_methodological_approach_mansur_et_al.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur; Masih, Rumi; Hasan, Mohammad S. (1997)

  • Proposes to re-examine empirically the causal relationship between defence spending and economic growth in mainland China. First, using a VAR modelling technique with suitable diagnostics, e.g. Akaike's FPE statistics and a likelihood ratio test for over and under-fitting the causal model, the results indicate a positive unidirectional causality flowing from defence spending to economic growth. Second, by evaluating a dynamic vector error correction model, variance decomposition and impulse response functions, then analyses the direction, duration and strength of Granger-causality between defence spending and economic growth. The results broadly indicate that defence spending and econ...

  • New_frontiers_for_cash_waqf_models_for_socio_economic_development_Magda Ismail.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Magda Ismail Abdel Mohsin (2022)

  • Waqf is a charitable financial instrument established by withholding immovable and movable properties to perpetually spend its revenue on fulfilling various socio-economic needs, depending on the founder's terms and conditions. Once the property is created as waqf, it can never be given as a gift, inherited or sold. It belongs to Allah (SWT), and the waqf property always remains intact. Only its generated revenue is channeled to the specified need. There are two motives behind the creation of waqf for the founder. The first is to attain righteousness as clearly stated in the following verse from the Qur'an: "By no means shall ye attain righteousness unless ye give (freely) of that whi...

  • new_issues_islamic_finance_economics_progress_challenges_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; Mirakhor, Abbas (2009)

  • This book provides a review of the main issues and challenges facing Islamic finance. The application of Islamic finance is currently limited to banking. This book starts with an overview of the factors and motives behind the development of Islamic finance. A critical review of issues facing the industry is provided followed by a detailed analysis of areas where further attention is required. The book offers some original thinking on issues pertaining to governance, institutions, public finance and economic development within an Islamic financial system.

  • new_murabahah_based_product_islamic_finance_panel_discussion_Aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Aishath Muneeza (2018)

  • On the 2nd May 2018, the Bank of Maldives (BML) Islamic announced the launch of a new personal financing product whereby applications for this product will be processed within seven days and customers will pay the price of the goods in monthly installments. It is stated on the official website of BML Islamic that customers can now shop for electronics, furniture or home appliances from any of the authorized dealers and pay in monthly installments with BML Islamic Personal Financing. The financing amount is from MVR15,000 (US$949.79) to MVR100,000 (US$6,331.91) for this product, there is an option to enjoy a lower rate, if security is added.

  • item.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Ginanjar Dewandaru; Adam Ng Boon Ka; Abbas Mirakhor (2017)

  • This article discusses one of the myths and the new realities of risk sharing. The myth is that risk sharing contracts are costly and demand more information than debt based contracts. The reality is that risk sharing contracts are incentive-compatible contract because there is an incentive structure in place to elicit truth-telling, trust, cooperation, hard work, and efficiency in resource management; factors that could not be written into contracts and enforced. Hence, the contracts attenuate coordination problem and improve the efficiency of outcomes.

  • PhD_A_new_regulatory_model_for_liquidity_management_of_Islamic_banks_Habib_Dolgun.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Dolgun, Muhammed Habib (2017)

  • The main objective of this dissertation is to critically examine the factors that affect liquidity risk management of Islamic banks and then to develop an alternative regulatory framework appropriate for liquidity management of these banks. While there are several studies on the performance, growth, and efficiency of Islamic banks, empirical studies from the regulatory and supervisory perspectives are very limited. Primarily, this dissertation seeks to fill this gap by examining liquidity risk management of ...

  • New_strategic_directions_to_be_formulated_for_Islamic_capital_market_development_in_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2014)

  • The Capital Market Development Authority (CMDA), the Maldivian regulatory authority for the Islamic capital market (ICM), has stared work to formulate the ICM Strategic plan 2015-20. The primary strategies formulated include: enhance the depth of Islamic capital market products and services, strengthen the Capital Market Shariah Advisory Committee.

  • nexus_between_oil_price_islamic_stock_markets_Africa_wavelet_multivariate-GARCH_approach_baharom.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Fatima Muhammad Abdulkarim; Is'haq Muhammad Mustapha; Baharom Abdul Hamid; Hamisu Sadi Ali (2020)

  • The goal of this paper is to address the relationship between crude oil-price changes on some selected African Islamic indices, using daily data from May 4, 2011, to January 25, 2018. We employed three main techniques: MODWT, CWT, and multivariate-GARCH-DCC, to analyze whether these markets have any diversification opportunities. Our findings reveal that, first, the results of MODWT shows Egyptian Islamic index leading all indices. Second, CWT results show that investors would gain diversification benefits in almost all markets (except South Africa) and enjoy the benefit that comes with long-term investments. Third, we observed low correlations between the Egyptian and Tunisian Islami...

  • PhD_Non_intermediation_activities_and_impacts_on_bank_performance_Mohsin_Ali.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Mohsin Ali (2017)

  • In the wake of increasing competition and financial deregulation, the traditional intermediation activities have been declining as proportion of total banking activities. Banks are left with no choice but to be more creative to survive in the market place. Therefore, banks have been attempting to offset this decline in profits with income generated from non-traditional / non-intermediation activities. After the recent global crisis, both Islamic and conventional banks in OIC countries have also shifted their business focus. This invites a thorough investigation into the impact of non-intermediation activities on bank performance as well as on the economic growth and volatility. In the...

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Nurrawaida Husna Hamzah (2019)

  • The mainstream belief that finance contributes positively to an economy has been challenged in view of financial crises that hit economies worldwide, while the notion that Islamic finance is more stable than conventional finance has been criticised as the structure often mimic conventional financing. Amidst the rapid development of Islamic finance in Malaysia, the question of whether it contributes positively to the economy is never resolved. The present paper uses 'Islamic financing' and 'Islamic deposits' as proxies to analyse the relationship between Islamic financial development and economic growth. By employing vector error correction method (VECM) and variance decomposition (VDC...

  • Nonfinancial_traits_and_financial_smartness_wajahat_shamsher_eskandar.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Naeem Azmi, Choudhary Wajahat; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad; Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah (2018)

  • This paper examines the flow-performance relationship and the presence of "Smart money effect" in Socially responsible funds (SRFs) and Shariah compliant funds (SCFs). A survivorship bias free sample of 686 funds comprising of 212 SCFs and 474 SRFs were analysed with investment focus in the Asia pacific, Emerging markets, Europe, Global (with no focus to any specific country or region), Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and North America. The findings show that flow-performance relationship is asymmetric for both the funds as the response to positive returns is more as compare to the negative returns for the last/current year as well as the last/current month. There is also a signif...

  • item.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Hasan, Zubair (2009)

  • The year 2008, recorded some elating developments in the area of Islamic finance worldwide. The size of Shari’ah compliant assets rose to around $500 billion. The market share of Islamic Financial Institutions stood, it is estimated, at 12 percent in Malaysia and at 17 percent in the GCC countries where it is currently expanding much faster than anywhere else. Some leading rating agencies believe that the market potential of Islamic financial services is a close to $4 trillion, of which no more than 10 percent has so far been realized (Al-Amine, 2008, p. 1). The current financial meltdown is diverting global attention to Islamic finance as a better and safer alternative. Thus, the fut...

  • Occupational_risk_the_urgency_for_frontliner_protection_Baharom_Ziyaad.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Baharom Abdul Hamid; Ziyaad Mahomed; Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen; Wiaam Hassan (2020)

  • The Department of Labour in the US recently released their COVID-19 Occupational Risk Score. The statistics are based on their Purchasing Power Parity, the homogeneity of the job description and the risk of exposure to COVID-19. The figure above may be used to depict a more generic occupational risk correlated with salary grades, that are experienced internationally, including Malaysia. The Occupational Risk Score can be divided into four quadrants: i. high income-low risk, ii. high income-high risk, iii. low income-high risk, and iv. low income-low risk. Those with the highest exposure to infection include what is now termed as the 'frontliners'. These include doctors, nurses, and ot...

Browsing by Title

Jump to: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
or enter first few letters:  
Showing results 1050 to 1069 of 1635
  • nature_money_modern_economy_implications_consequences_stephen_robert_mabid.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mahmoud Al-Jarhi, Mabid Ali Mohamed (2016)

  • Reforming the contemporary monetary and financial system has come under the limelight with the onset of the last international financial crisis. Zarlenga and Poteat focus on the elimination of credit money and the return of the exclusive right of issuing money to the government as a key to reforming the system. In this comment, I argue that they are right, but reform should be wider and more comprehensive. My arguments are inspired by al-Jarhi's model of an Islamic monetary system (1981).

  • The_need_for_Shariah_governance_framework_for_Islamic_crowdfunding_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Ahmed Aban Zubair; Aishath Muneeza (2021)

  • The concept of crowdfunding entails the process of financing an idea, a project, a person or a cause through the collection of small amounts of money from a large number of providers. There are four types of crowdfunding namely lending or P2P crowdfunding, donation-based, reward-based and equity-based. Islamic crowdfunding provides an opportunity for investors, donors and entrepreneurs to support the socio-economic development of the micro and small enterprises sector in Islamic countries. In the absence of a proper Shariah governance framework applicable for Islamic crowdfunding, there could be cases in which Shariah non-compliance circumstances could occur, and without the implement...

  • The_need_to_digitize_sukuk_issuance_amid_Covid-19_crisis_Aishath et al.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Sherin Kunhibava; Zakariya Mustapha; Aishath Muneeza; Auwal Adam Sa'ad; Mohammad Ershadul Karim (2022)

  • Covid-19 pandemic was a health crisis that plunged the world into economic turmoil due to its resultant national lockdowns across economies which brought business and market activities to a standstill. In order to adapt to ensuing restrictions owing to the pandemic, forge ahead in a new way of living, work and interactions with one another (new normal), digitizing business and market operations is considered a necessary option. Sukuk is an essential Islamic capital market product whose operations involve multiple parties/intermediaries alongside some technical financial, administrative and legal/shariah processes. On this note, this chapter aims to study and examine the need for digit...

  • Need_to_pioneer_Islamic_tourism_tourist_resorts_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Aishath Muneeza; Zakariya Mustapha; Fathimath Nashwa Badeeu; Aminath Reesha Nafiz (2020)

  • The purpose of this paper is to formulate ways in which Maldives could pioneer Islamic tourism on a befitting framework and financing structure as a leverage to develop its tourism industry. The research uses qualitative approach whereby primary and empirical data on tourism practices as well as relevant laws and guidelines, issued in Maldives and in other Muslim jurisdictions of the Muslim, are analyzed. Doctrinal approach is used in analyzing secondary data on the subject. The research reveals the potential of Islamic tourism in Maldives as well as the challenges that have constrained its development in the country. Certainty is needed in halal products, services and conducts. Codif...

  • Need_to_redefine_Islamic_finance_in_the_light_of_maqasid_al_shariah_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: M. Kabir Hassan; Aishath Muneeza; Mehmet Sarac (2021)

  • The history of Islamic finance began with the inception of Islam in the world. However, the modern institutionalization of Islamic finance began in the 1960s with the establishement of the first Islamic bank, Mit Ghamr in Egypt in 1963. prior to this, Islamic finance was practices in isolation at an informal level in communities where Muslims wanted to practice muamalat or commercial matters in accordance with Islamic law. These ad hoc practices were customized as pert the requirement of the societies and the benefits from these practices were enjoyed by Muslims of selected communities. When institutionalization of Islamic began, the compatibility of it with the conventional financial...

  • new_evidence_from_an_alternative_methodological_approach_mansur_et_al.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur; Masih, Rumi; Hasan, Mohammad S. (1997)

  • Proposes to re-examine empirically the causal relationship between defence spending and economic growth in mainland China. First, using a VAR modelling technique with suitable diagnostics, e.g. Akaike's FPE statistics and a likelihood ratio test for over and under-fitting the causal model, the results indicate a positive unidirectional causality flowing from defence spending to economic growth. Second, by evaluating a dynamic vector error correction model, variance decomposition and impulse response functions, then analyses the direction, duration and strength of Granger-causality between defence spending and economic growth. The results broadly indicate that defence spending and econ...

  • New_frontiers_for_cash_waqf_models_for_socio_economic_development_Magda Ismail.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Magda Ismail Abdel Mohsin (2022)

  • Waqf is a charitable financial instrument established by withholding immovable and movable properties to perpetually spend its revenue on fulfilling various socio-economic needs, depending on the founder's terms and conditions. Once the property is created as waqf, it can never be given as a gift, inherited or sold. It belongs to Allah (SWT), and the waqf property always remains intact. Only its generated revenue is channeled to the specified need. There are two motives behind the creation of waqf for the founder. The first is to attain righteousness as clearly stated in the following verse from the Qur'an: "By no means shall ye attain righteousness unless ye give (freely) of that whi...

  • new_issues_islamic_finance_economics_progress_challenges_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Askari, Hossein; Iqbal, Zamir; Mirakhor, Abbas (2009)

  • This book provides a review of the main issues and challenges facing Islamic finance. The application of Islamic finance is currently limited to banking. This book starts with an overview of the factors and motives behind the development of Islamic finance. A critical review of issues facing the industry is provided followed by a detailed analysis of areas where further attention is required. The book offers some original thinking on issues pertaining to governance, institutions, public finance and economic development within an Islamic financial system.

  • new_murabahah_based_product_islamic_finance_panel_discussion_Aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Aishath Muneeza (2018)

  • On the 2nd May 2018, the Bank of Maldives (BML) Islamic announced the launch of a new personal financing product whereby applications for this product will be processed within seven days and customers will pay the price of the goods in monthly installments. It is stated on the official website of BML Islamic that customers can now shop for electronics, furniture or home appliances from any of the authorized dealers and pay in monthly installments with BML Islamic Personal Financing. The financing amount is from MVR15,000 (US$949.79) to MVR100,000 (US$6,331.91) for this product, there is an option to enjoy a lower rate, if security is added.

  • item.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Ginanjar Dewandaru; Adam Ng Boon Ka; Abbas Mirakhor (2017)

  • This article discusses one of the myths and the new realities of risk sharing. The myth is that risk sharing contracts are costly and demand more information than debt based contracts. The reality is that risk sharing contracts are incentive-compatible contract because there is an incentive structure in place to elicit truth-telling, trust, cooperation, hard work, and efficiency in resource management; factors that could not be written into contracts and enforced. Hence, the contracts attenuate coordination problem and improve the efficiency of outcomes.

  • PhD_A_new_regulatory_model_for_liquidity_management_of_Islamic_banks_Habib_Dolgun.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Dolgun, Muhammed Habib (2017)

  • The main objective of this dissertation is to critically examine the factors that affect liquidity risk management of Islamic banks and then to develop an alternative regulatory framework appropriate for liquidity management of these banks. While there are several studies on the performance, growth, and efficiency of Islamic banks, empirical studies from the regulatory and supervisory perspectives are very limited. Primarily, this dissertation seeks to fill this gap by examining liquidity risk management of ...

  • New_strategic_directions_to_be_formulated_for_Islamic_capital_market_development_in_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2014)

  • The Capital Market Development Authority (CMDA), the Maldivian regulatory authority for the Islamic capital market (ICM), has stared work to formulate the ICM Strategic plan 2015-20. The primary strategies formulated include: enhance the depth of Islamic capital market products and services, strengthen the Capital Market Shariah Advisory Committee.

  • nexus_between_oil_price_islamic_stock_markets_Africa_wavelet_multivariate-GARCH_approach_baharom.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Fatima Muhammad Abdulkarim; Is'haq Muhammad Mustapha; Baharom Abdul Hamid; Hamisu Sadi Ali (2020)

  • The goal of this paper is to address the relationship between crude oil-price changes on some selected African Islamic indices, using daily data from May 4, 2011, to January 25, 2018. We employed three main techniques: MODWT, CWT, and multivariate-GARCH-DCC, to analyze whether these markets have any diversification opportunities. Our findings reveal that, first, the results of MODWT shows Egyptian Islamic index leading all indices. Second, CWT results show that investors would gain diversification benefits in almost all markets (except South Africa) and enjoy the benefit that comes with long-term investments. Third, we observed low correlations between the Egyptian and Tunisian Islami...

  • PhD_Non_intermediation_activities_and_impacts_on_bank_performance_Mohsin_Ali.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Mohsin Ali (2017)

  • In the wake of increasing competition and financial deregulation, the traditional intermediation activities have been declining as proportion of total banking activities. Banks are left with no choice but to be more creative to survive in the market place. Therefore, banks have been attempting to offset this decline in profits with income generated from non-traditional / non-intermediation activities. After the recent global crisis, both Islamic and conventional banks in OIC countries have also shifted their business focus. This invites a thorough investigation into the impact of non-intermediation activities on bank performance as well as on the economic growth and volatility. In the...

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Nurrawaida Husna Hamzah (2019)

  • The mainstream belief that finance contributes positively to an economy has been challenged in view of financial crises that hit economies worldwide, while the notion that Islamic finance is more stable than conventional finance has been criticised as the structure often mimic conventional financing. Amidst the rapid development of Islamic finance in Malaysia, the question of whether it contributes positively to the economy is never resolved. The present paper uses 'Islamic financing' and 'Islamic deposits' as proxies to analyse the relationship between Islamic financial development and economic growth. By employing vector error correction method (VECM) and variance decomposition (VDC...

  • Nonfinancial_traits_and_financial_smartness_wajahat_shamsher_eskandar.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Naeem Azmi, Choudhary Wajahat; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad; Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah (2018)

  • This paper examines the flow-performance relationship and the presence of "Smart money effect" in Socially responsible funds (SRFs) and Shariah compliant funds (SCFs). A survivorship bias free sample of 686 funds comprising of 212 SCFs and 474 SRFs were analysed with investment focus in the Asia pacific, Emerging markets, Europe, Global (with no focus to any specific country or region), Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and North America. The findings show that flow-performance relationship is asymmetric for both the funds as the response to positive returns is more as compare to the negative returns for the last/current year as well as the last/current month. There is also a signif...

  • item.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Hasan, Zubair (2009)

  • The year 2008, recorded some elating developments in the area of Islamic finance worldwide. The size of Shari’ah compliant assets rose to around $500 billion. The market share of Islamic Financial Institutions stood, it is estimated, at 12 percent in Malaysia and at 17 percent in the GCC countries where it is currently expanding much faster than anywhere else. Some leading rating agencies believe that the market potential of Islamic financial services is a close to $4 trillion, of which no more than 10 percent has so far been realized (Al-Amine, 2008, p. 1). The current financial meltdown is diverting global attention to Islamic finance as a better and safer alternative. Thus, the fut...

  • Occupational_risk_the_urgency_for_frontliner_protection_Baharom_Ziyaad.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Baharom Abdul Hamid; Ziyaad Mahomed; Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen; Wiaam Hassan (2020)

  • The Department of Labour in the US recently released their COVID-19 Occupational Risk Score. The statistics are based on their Purchasing Power Parity, the homogeneity of the job description and the risk of exposure to COVID-19. The figure above may be used to depict a more generic occupational risk correlated with salary grades, that are experienced internationally, including Malaysia. The Occupational Risk Score can be divided into four quadrants: i. high income-low risk, ii. high income-high risk, iii. low income-high risk, and iv. low income-low risk. Those with the highest exposure to infection include what is now termed as the 'frontliners'. These include doctors, nurses, and ot...