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Showing results 864 to 883 of 1487
  • ma'alim tajdid_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Lahsasna, Ahcene (2010)

  • This book provides an economic analysis of the earliest Islamic society, focusing on the policies of the Messenger of Islam (Sawa) and his successors during the first four formative decades of Islam. The author uses historical economic data, facts, and evidences that are reported from the period, both prior to and after establishment of the Islamic State, to explore the economic relations, policies, and models that were in practice and applied at that time.

  • Macroeconomic_activity_dynamics_and_Granger_causality_Mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Masih, Rumi; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (1996)

  • The main purpose of this paper is to discern the dynamic causal chain (in the Granger (temporal) sense rather than in the structural sense) among real output, money, interest rate, inflation and the exchange rate in the context of a small Asian developing economy, such as Indonesia. The methodology employed uses various unit root tests and Johansen's cointegration test followed by vector error-correction modelling, variance decompositions, and impulse response functions in order to capture both the within-sample and out-of-sample Granger causal chain among macroeconomic activity. Given the inward-oriented growth strategy of this small developing economy, where the real output was vuln...

  • Macroeconomic_announcements_volatility_interrelationships_mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Jones, Brad; Chien-Ting, Lin; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2004)

  • This study investigates the intraday and daily pricing behavior of UK interest rate and equity index futures contracts. The paper initially examines the response of Short Sterling, Long Gilt, and FTSE100 to the release of scheduled macroeconomic announcements before employing dynamic time series techniques in order to reveal the nature of causal transmission patterns between these variables. In brief, short-term interest rates were found to be highly sensitive to indicators of prevailing economic conditions. However, the release of data important in the formation of inflationary expectations had a relatively subdued impact on long-term rates. Announcement effects appear somewhat ambig...

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Tayeb, Hamza Ait (2018)

  • This study aims to apply the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique to analyze the macroeconomic impacts of oil prices on oil importing and oil exporting economis using Russia and Japan as evidence. Quarterly data from 1997 till 2017 of macroeconomic indicators like GDP growth, CPI, exchange rate, PPI, and oil prices were used in this study. Our results indicate that in an oil importing country like Japan, oil price increase has inflationary effects on the domestic economy as the average prices increase. Also, it was found that economic growth tends to decline in the wake of rising oil prices. The value of the currency is also shown to depreciate vis-a-vis the US Dollar as th...

  • Macroeconomic_policy_trilemma_in_open_economies_mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2005)

  • Right now Malaysia has the major economic fundamentals more or less right (excepting the budget deficit). The inflation rate is low (1.2%), unemployment rate is relatively low (3.5%), current account balance is significantly positive (13.7%), foreign reserves are growing and comfortable and the savings rate is high. Given Malaysia's current economic and political strength and the experiences of many other open economies, it appears to me that as long as the macroeconomic discipline as well as the ongoing financial and corporate sector restructuring developments are maintained, Malaysia can enhance its FDI inflows, growth rate of output and employment significantly by continuing with t...

  • macroeconomic shocks and Islamic bank behavior in turkey_Ahmet_Mustafa_Adam_Huseyin.jpg.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Aysan, Ahmet F.; Disli, Mustafa; Ng, Adam Boon Ka; Ozturk, Huseyin (2017)

  • Events such as the 'credit crunch', 'bank run', 'financial contagion', 'flight to quality' and 'systemic risks' have widely transpired in recent times. One important dimension permeating these events is the dynamic link between macroeconomic shocks and banks' behaviour. Economic crises experienced by five East Asian countries in the late 1990s were accompanied by financial sector problems. The Great Recession of the late 2000s also corresponded to heightened solvency risks affecting over-leveraged banks and financial institutions in many developed countries. In a world of imperfect information, adverse macroeconomic shocks could weaken firms' balance sheets, diminish bank capital and ...

  • macroeconomics_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Hasan, Zubair; Lehar, Habibah (2009)

  • This content of this book are spread over eleven chapters, covering four major themes: introduction to macroeconomics, tools and models, monetary and fiscal policies and income distribution. Available in physical copy only (Call Number: HB 172.5 H344)

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Adedamola, Adebumiti Qazeem (2019)

  • This thesis examines the Major Sukuk Defaults that have been experienced to date in the Islamic Capital Market. The total major cases that have been witnessed, according to Syed Ali (2016), are 10 major cases. A further dig by this study found that they are actually 11 major cases in total. Due to constraints and data availability, only 6 major cases were sampled. While previous studies have discussed Sukuk defaults from many perspectives, few attention have, so far, been given to issues in Sukuk default from a Shari'ah perspective. This study investigates some of the issues with the 6 major cases sampled from a Shari'ah perspective. Hence, the contribution of this research is germane...

  • making_development_assistance_sustainable_through_Islamic_microfinance_rodney.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Wilson, Rodney (2012)

  • Microfinance involves the provision of financial services for those too poor to have access to banks. Although microfinance schemes have been operational since the 1960s, they mostly involve conventional finance whereas many low-income Muslims would prefer to have shari'a-compliant finance. The aim of this chapter is to explore how microfinace could be provided on a shari'a-compliant basis and what instruments and structures could be used. The literature in this area has been very limited, but there have been a number of recent notable contributiions indicating the increasing interest in the topic.

  • making_endowment_good_cause_theedge_magda.pdf.jpg
  • Newspaper Article


  • Authors: Ismail Abdel Mohsin, Magda (2016)

  • Wakaf, or a religious endowment for a charitable cause, is a lesser-known component of Islamic wealth management. It can be viewed as a way of doing good, giving back to society, or earning pahala (divine reward). These endowments have usually involved immovable assets such as buildings and land, but they can also be in the form of movable assets such as furniture and jewellery - as long as they are not forbidden in Islam. Setting up a cash wakaf, or trust fund, is another way to make an endowment. Cash wakaf, which is based on the concept of mudarabah, has been around since the 8th century. But the Islamic authorities have recently established a legal framework for such endowments in...

  • Malaysia_global_hub_for_fund_administration.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Shamsher Mohamad Ramadili Mohd; Ziyaad Mahomed (2018)

  • The last decade has witnessed significant growth of fund management companies in the Southeast Asian region, and Malaysia has shown immense potential in this area. The expansion of the middle income class, outstanding talent and abundant natural resources have contributed to this growth. Despite significant developments in the recent past, the mutual fund industry in Malaysia is relatively small compared with other market in Malaysia, particularly in the area of Islamic fund administration, requires a comprehensive financial ecosystem that is globally competitive.

  • Malaysia_not_quite_there_yet_global_wealth_management_hub_eskandar.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah (2016)

  • The sum of global Islamic assets under management (AUM) is relatively small compared with the overall market. In the third quarter of 2015, Islamic AUM represented approximately 1% of the global market or US$60.2 billion; nevertheless, Malaysia contributes the largest portion with a total value of US$27.2 billion, according to data from the International Shariah Research Academy for Islamic Finance and Zawya. Chart 2 illustrates the position of Malaysia as a market leader for Islamic fund management. Growth in this industry, even if it’s small, would be a significant boost to the Malaysian economy and crucial when we need to diversify our economy in order to reduce the over-reliance o...

  • malaysia_us_trade_question_sustainability_correct_policy_baharom_2015.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Abdul Hamid, Baharom; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah (2015-09-30)

  • The on-off-on again-off again Malaysia-US Free Trade Agreement (MUSFTA) is a proposed treaty between Malaysia and the United States of America. Initial negotiations, in fact started way back in 2005 and as all other Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), the treaty aims to liberalise each other markets to parties of the agreement and directly encourage trade between the two countries. Malaysia has a commendable and enviable economic growth and development. Our macroeconomic policies have always been designed to create a more liberalized and fair international trade environment. Though Malaysia continues to accord high priority to the rule-based multilateral trading system under the World Trade...

  • IFHubEd4_malaysian_higher_education_institutions_endowment_fund_way_forward_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Wiaam Hassan; Nurfarahin Mazlan; Ahcene Lahsasna (2017)

  • Tertiary education plays crucial role in building a robust human capital base within a knowledge driven global economy. As such, tertiary education policy is increasingly becoming a significant national agenda in order to raise higher level employment skills in order to sustain a globally competitive research base as well as to improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society (OECD, 2008). Malaysia's education system has gone through an expansion in its various segments especially in the its higher education segment where it is to now focus on developing young talents. Malaysian higher education system was initially built under the Government's sponsorship before the entrance...

  • Malaysian investors perspectives on Islamic stock market_Marjan_Syed Othman_Mansur Masih.jpg.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Naseri, Marjan; Alhabshi, Syed Othman; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2017)

  • This chapter attempts to analyse the extent of financial integration of Islamic stock markets in two developed (the US and Japan) and two developing countries (China and India). The study takes the perspectives of the Malaysian Islamic investors in making their decisions about portfolio diversification, risk management and asset allocation. Despite the growing interest in Islamic finance, there are a few empirical studies investigating integration of Islamic stock markets. As a result, there is a certain gap in the literature pertaining to this area of research. By applying recent relevant techniques such as MGARCH-DCC and wavelets (both CWT and MODWT) ... Available in physical cop...

  • Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2019)

  • The Maldives is a 100% Muslim country. Islamic finance in the Maldives was introduced 15 years ago. The journey of developing Islamic finance in the Maldives has not been so long, but today the number of players in the market is 12. For a small country like the Maldives, having 12 Islamic finance providers is adequate. In 2003, when Amana Takaful Maldives started its operation in the Maldives, it opened an agency office called Amana Takaful Sri Lanka. Until the 4th March 2010, the company operated through a local agent with a temporary license. Upon receiving a license from the Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) which is the regulator, the company ceased its operations through the agen...

  • the_maldives_celebrates_that_crystal_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2019)

  • Amana Takaful Maldives celebrated its 15th anniversary of Islamic finance by honoring key institutional and individual stakeholders who assisted in the development of Islamic finance with awards of appreciation on the 11th July. The governor of the Central Bank of Maldives was the chief guest. Apart from myself, the other individual award recipient was Fathimath Shafeega, former CEO of Capital Market Development Authority, who is currently a board director of the Maldives Islamic Bank (MIB).

  • Maldives_center_Islamic_finance_position_Maldives_Islamic_finance_halal_industry_hub_south_asia_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2016)

  • On the 27th March 2016, at a news conference held at the Ministry of Finance and Treasury, the minister of finance and treasury of Maldives, Abdullah Jihad, announced the formation of the Maldives Center for Islamic Finance that will work toward positioning Maldives as the hub for Islamic finance and the Halal industry in South Asia. The five-year strategic business plan was also inaugurated at the same time.

  • Maldives_Islamic_Bank_announces_dividend_for_2020_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2021)

  • Maldives Islamic Bank has announced via a press release dated the 26th April 2021 that its board of directors, via the board resolution on the 25th April 2021, has recommended a cash dividend of MVR27.56 million (US$1.78 million) equivalent to MVR1.23 (7.94 US cents) per ordinary share for the year ended the 31st December 2020, subject to the final approval of shareholders at its forthcoming annual general meeting.

Browsing by Title

Jump to: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
or enter first few letters:  
Showing results 864 to 883 of 1487
  • ma'alim tajdid_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Lahsasna, Ahcene (2010)

  • This book provides an economic analysis of the earliest Islamic society, focusing on the policies of the Messenger of Islam (Sawa) and his successors during the first four formative decades of Islam. The author uses historical economic data, facts, and evidences that are reported from the period, both prior to and after establishment of the Islamic State, to explore the economic relations, policies, and models that were in practice and applied at that time.

  • Macroeconomic_activity_dynamics_and_Granger_causality_Mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Masih, Rumi; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (1996)

  • The main purpose of this paper is to discern the dynamic causal chain (in the Granger (temporal) sense rather than in the structural sense) among real output, money, interest rate, inflation and the exchange rate in the context of a small Asian developing economy, such as Indonesia. The methodology employed uses various unit root tests and Johansen's cointegration test followed by vector error-correction modelling, variance decompositions, and impulse response functions in order to capture both the within-sample and out-of-sample Granger causal chain among macroeconomic activity. Given the inward-oriented growth strategy of this small developing economy, where the real output was vuln...

  • Macroeconomic_announcements_volatility_interrelationships_mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Jones, Brad; Chien-Ting, Lin; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2004)

  • This study investigates the intraday and daily pricing behavior of UK interest rate and equity index futures contracts. The paper initially examines the response of Short Sterling, Long Gilt, and FTSE100 to the release of scheduled macroeconomic announcements before employing dynamic time series techniques in order to reveal the nature of causal transmission patterns between these variables. In brief, short-term interest rates were found to be highly sensitive to indicators of prevailing economic conditions. However, the release of data important in the formation of inflationary expectations had a relatively subdued impact on long-term rates. Announcement effects appear somewhat ambig...

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Tayeb, Hamza Ait (2018)

  • This study aims to apply the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) technique to analyze the macroeconomic impacts of oil prices on oil importing and oil exporting economis using Russia and Japan as evidence. Quarterly data from 1997 till 2017 of macroeconomic indicators like GDP growth, CPI, exchange rate, PPI, and oil prices were used in this study. Our results indicate that in an oil importing country like Japan, oil price increase has inflationary effects on the domestic economy as the average prices increase. Also, it was found that economic growth tends to decline in the wake of rising oil prices. The value of the currency is also shown to depreciate vis-a-vis the US Dollar as th...

  • Macroeconomic_policy_trilemma_in_open_economies_mansur.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2005)

  • Right now Malaysia has the major economic fundamentals more or less right (excepting the budget deficit). The inflation rate is low (1.2%), unemployment rate is relatively low (3.5%), current account balance is significantly positive (13.7%), foreign reserves are growing and comfortable and the savings rate is high. Given Malaysia's current economic and political strength and the experiences of many other open economies, it appears to me that as long as the macroeconomic discipline as well as the ongoing financial and corporate sector restructuring developments are maintained, Malaysia can enhance its FDI inflows, growth rate of output and employment significantly by continuing with t...

  • macroeconomic shocks and Islamic bank behavior in turkey_Ahmet_Mustafa_Adam_Huseyin.jpg.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Aysan, Ahmet F.; Disli, Mustafa; Ng, Adam Boon Ka; Ozturk, Huseyin (2017)

  • Events such as the 'credit crunch', 'bank run', 'financial contagion', 'flight to quality' and 'systemic risks' have widely transpired in recent times. One important dimension permeating these events is the dynamic link between macroeconomic shocks and banks' behaviour. Economic crises experienced by five East Asian countries in the late 1990s were accompanied by financial sector problems. The Great Recession of the late 2000s also corresponded to heightened solvency risks affecting over-leveraged banks and financial institutions in many developed countries. In a world of imperfect information, adverse macroeconomic shocks could weaken firms' balance sheets, diminish bank capital and ...

  • macroeconomics_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Hasan, Zubair; Lehar, Habibah (2009)

  • This content of this book are spread over eleven chapters, covering four major themes: introduction to macroeconomics, tools and models, monetary and fiscal policies and income distribution. Available in physical copy only (Call Number: HB 172.5 H344)

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Adedamola, Adebumiti Qazeem (2019)

  • This thesis examines the Major Sukuk Defaults that have been experienced to date in the Islamic Capital Market. The total major cases that have been witnessed, according to Syed Ali (2016), are 10 major cases. A further dig by this study found that they are actually 11 major cases in total. Due to constraints and data availability, only 6 major cases were sampled. While previous studies have discussed Sukuk defaults from many perspectives, few attention have, so far, been given to issues in Sukuk default from a Shari'ah perspective. This study investigates some of the issues with the 6 major cases sampled from a Shari'ah perspective. Hence, the contribution of this research is germane...

  • making_development_assistance_sustainable_through_Islamic_microfinance_rodney.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Wilson, Rodney (2012)

  • Microfinance involves the provision of financial services for those too poor to have access to banks. Although microfinance schemes have been operational since the 1960s, they mostly involve conventional finance whereas many low-income Muslims would prefer to have shari'a-compliant finance. The aim of this chapter is to explore how microfinace could be provided on a shari'a-compliant basis and what instruments and structures could be used. The literature in this area has been very limited, but there have been a number of recent notable contributiions indicating the increasing interest in the topic.

  • making_endowment_good_cause_theedge_magda.pdf.jpg
  • Newspaper Article


  • Authors: Ismail Abdel Mohsin, Magda (2016)

  • Wakaf, or a religious endowment for a charitable cause, is a lesser-known component of Islamic wealth management. It can be viewed as a way of doing good, giving back to society, or earning pahala (divine reward). These endowments have usually involved immovable assets such as buildings and land, but they can also be in the form of movable assets such as furniture and jewellery - as long as they are not forbidden in Islam. Setting up a cash wakaf, or trust fund, is another way to make an endowment. Cash wakaf, which is based on the concept of mudarabah, has been around since the 8th century. But the Islamic authorities have recently established a legal framework for such endowments in...

  • Malaysia_global_hub_for_fund_administration.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Shamsher Mohamad Ramadili Mohd; Ziyaad Mahomed (2018)

  • The last decade has witnessed significant growth of fund management companies in the Southeast Asian region, and Malaysia has shown immense potential in this area. The expansion of the middle income class, outstanding talent and abundant natural resources have contributed to this growth. Despite significant developments in the recent past, the mutual fund industry in Malaysia is relatively small compared with other market in Malaysia, particularly in the area of Islamic fund administration, requires a comprehensive financial ecosystem that is globally competitive.

  • Malaysia_not_quite_there_yet_global_wealth_management_hub_eskandar.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah (2016)

  • The sum of global Islamic assets under management (AUM) is relatively small compared with the overall market. In the third quarter of 2015, Islamic AUM represented approximately 1% of the global market or US$60.2 billion; nevertheless, Malaysia contributes the largest portion with a total value of US$27.2 billion, according to data from the International Shariah Research Academy for Islamic Finance and Zawya. Chart 2 illustrates the position of Malaysia as a market leader for Islamic fund management. Growth in this industry, even if it’s small, would be a significant boost to the Malaysian economy and crucial when we need to diversify our economy in order to reduce the over-reliance o...

  • malaysia_us_trade_question_sustainability_correct_policy_baharom_2015.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Abdul Hamid, Baharom; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah (2015-09-30)

  • The on-off-on again-off again Malaysia-US Free Trade Agreement (MUSFTA) is a proposed treaty between Malaysia and the United States of America. Initial negotiations, in fact started way back in 2005 and as all other Free Trade Agreements (FTAs), the treaty aims to liberalise each other markets to parties of the agreement and directly encourage trade between the two countries. Malaysia has a commendable and enviable economic growth and development. Our macroeconomic policies have always been designed to create a more liberalized and fair international trade environment. Though Malaysia continues to accord high priority to the rule-based multilateral trading system under the World Trade...

  • IFHubEd4_malaysian_higher_education_institutions_endowment_fund_way_forward_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Wiaam Hassan; Nurfarahin Mazlan; Ahcene Lahsasna (2017)

  • Tertiary education plays crucial role in building a robust human capital base within a knowledge driven global economy. As such, tertiary education policy is increasingly becoming a significant national agenda in order to raise higher level employment skills in order to sustain a globally competitive research base as well as to improve knowledge dissemination to the benefit of society (OECD, 2008). Malaysia's education system has gone through an expansion in its various segments especially in the its higher education segment where it is to now focus on developing young talents. Malaysian higher education system was initially built under the Government's sponsorship before the entrance...

  • Malaysian investors perspectives on Islamic stock market_Marjan_Syed Othman_Mansur Masih.jpg.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Naseri, Marjan; Alhabshi, Syed Othman; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2017)

  • This chapter attempts to analyse the extent of financial integration of Islamic stock markets in two developed (the US and Japan) and two developing countries (China and India). The study takes the perspectives of the Malaysian Islamic investors in making their decisions about portfolio diversification, risk management and asset allocation. Despite the growing interest in Islamic finance, there are a few empirical studies investigating integration of Islamic stock markets. As a result, there is a certain gap in the literature pertaining to this area of research. By applying recent relevant techniques such as MGARCH-DCC and wavelets (both CWT and MODWT) ... Available in physical cop...

  • Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2019)

  • The Maldives is a 100% Muslim country. Islamic finance in the Maldives was introduced 15 years ago. The journey of developing Islamic finance in the Maldives has not been so long, but today the number of players in the market is 12. For a small country like the Maldives, having 12 Islamic finance providers is adequate. In 2003, when Amana Takaful Maldives started its operation in the Maldives, it opened an agency office called Amana Takaful Sri Lanka. Until the 4th March 2010, the company operated through a local agent with a temporary license. Upon receiving a license from the Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) which is the regulator, the company ceased its operations through the agen...

  • the_maldives_celebrates_that_crystal_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2019)

  • Amana Takaful Maldives celebrated its 15th anniversary of Islamic finance by honoring key institutional and individual stakeholders who assisted in the development of Islamic finance with awards of appreciation on the 11th July. The governor of the Central Bank of Maldives was the chief guest. Apart from myself, the other individual award recipient was Fathimath Shafeega, former CEO of Capital Market Development Authority, who is currently a board director of the Maldives Islamic Bank (MIB).

  • Maldives_center_Islamic_finance_position_Maldives_Islamic_finance_halal_industry_hub_south_asia_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2016)

  • On the 27th March 2016, at a news conference held at the Ministry of Finance and Treasury, the minister of finance and treasury of Maldives, Abdullah Jihad, announced the formation of the Maldives Center for Islamic Finance that will work toward positioning Maldives as the hub for Islamic finance and the Halal industry in South Asia. The five-year strategic business plan was also inaugurated at the same time.

  • Maldives_Islamic_Bank_announces_dividend_for_2020_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2021)

  • Maldives Islamic Bank has announced via a press release dated the 26th April 2021 that its board of directors, via the board resolution on the 25th April 2021, has recommended a cash dividend of MVR27.56 million (US$1.78 million) equivalent to MVR1.23 (7.94 US cents) per ordinary share for the year ended the 31st December 2020, subject to the final approval of shareholders at its forthcoming annual general meeting.