The national innovation system in the Muslim world

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Innovation is a key factor in propelling a country into a sustainable economic advancement. The neoclassical model of growth and thereafter the endogenous growth theories have repeatedly pointed to technological improvements in productivity as the catalyst to changes in the way we produce and consume. The ecosystem to nurture this outcome is not simple. It requires building a strong foundation. This study posits the notion that 5 key pillars of Infrastructure, Industry, Institution, Knowledge, Human Capital and Research & Development (R&D), and finally Finance & Investments are the essential ingredients to building the foundation. We analyse the policy gaps of Muslim countries within these themes against the most innovative countries and test our hypothesis through a regression model for the Muslim countries. From our study, we discern that R&D expenditure was rarely prioritized, and foreign talent was heavily leveraged upon as opposed to skilling the endowed labour force. For budding entrepreneurs, they found themselves limited in acquiring funds with venture capital rarely in presence. Many of the countries in the Muslim world are undergoing their own transformation journey. The proof in the pudding will be determined by their execution, commitment, and transparency. To this end, we have suggested a few recommendations to focus resources to.
Innovation , Muslim , Project paper (MSc)
Murad, N. A. (2021). The national innovation system in the Muslim world (Master dissertation). INCEIF, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved from

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