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Showing results 562 to 581 of 1487
  • Halal_certification_process_for_fisheries_products_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Mustapha, Zakariya (2020)

  • This paper aims to examine existing halal certification regime in Maldives and address impediments therein that challenge and inhibit the growth of the country's halal industry in relation to fisheries products. This is qualitative research based on first-hand experiences of the authors in the halal certification process in the Maldives. Doctrinal methodology is used in the analysis of primary sources of data, including Maldivian laws and halal certification regulations to identify issues of practical relevance. This is complemented with content analysis of secondary data sourced from journal articles, books, reports and online databases that were examined in identifying hindrances an...

  • handbook_asian_sovereign_bond_markets_yield_risk_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Ariff, Mohamed; Cheng, Fan Fah; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad (2013)

  • This book is on the pricing of sovereign debt in 17 bond markets across Asia: from Japan in the Far East and Israel in West Asia. The 17 markets include the very large bond market of Japan, which ranks equal among the largest five markets namely in the UK, the USA, Germany and Switzerland. Sovereign debt overhang is allegedly destabilizing the world economy from October 2011, since when the then Eurozone crisis transformed into government debt overhang crisis. This book is about the economics of how the sovereign debts are rated, priced and sold on the basis of perceived risk by investors buying and selling debt instruments. Developed economies' debt burden as a percentage of national...

  • handbook of investable world bond markets.pdf.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Ariff, Mohamed; Cheng, Fan Fah; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad (2016)

  • This book identifies how the major and some minor bond markets reacted to interest rate increases and decreases over the recent few years. As every investor knows excessive borrowings relative to the ability to service loans constitute sovereign debt crisis, and it is not limited only to developing countries as shown by the fall in bond values of profligate borrowers such as the Greece. This book is on the pricing of sovereign debt in 17 bond markets across the developed world, ones that have received most of the investors' money as investments.

  • harmonisation_Islamic_finance_reasons_dimensions_akram.pdf.jpg
  • Industry article


  • Authors: Laldin, Mohamad Akram; Furqani, Hafas (2013)

  • Islamic finance is now at the stage of internationalisation, witnessing greater integration between the Islamic financial industry and the global financial system. Islamic finance has gradually evolved to become a dynamic and competitive form of financial intermediation. The Islamic financial industry has been developing ways to facilitate its interaction and integration into the global financial system. We see Islamic finance attracting the attention of the global audience and transcending religious, political and geographical boundaries. It has the potential to be adopted as an alternative to the global financial system...

  • item.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Laldin, Mohamad Akram; Furqani, Hafas (2013)

  • Islamic finance is now at the stage of internationalisation, witnessing greater integration between the Islamic financial industry and the global financial system. Islamic finance has gradually evolved to become a dynamic and competitive form of financial intermediation. The Islamic financial industry has been developing ways to facilitate its interaction and integration into the global financial system. We see Islamic finance attracting the attention of the global audience and transcending religious, political and geographical boundaries. It has the potential to be adopted as an alternative to the global financial system...

  • PhD_Has_the_adoption_of_Islamic_banking_model_based_on_conventional_banks_values_Rosana.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Gulzar Mohd, Rosana (2018)

  • Despite the increase in studies on Islamic banks, there is a number of issues. Firstly, the comparison is with commercial banks although in reality, Islamic banks have strayed from their theoretical foundations of mutuality and profit-sharing. A more apt comparison is thus with cooperative banks, which share similar theoretical foundations with Islamic banks. Secondly, this comparison may unlock the stability puzzle for Islamic banks. While theoretically they are argued to be stabilising, empirically, the evidence is mixed. Several works concur with the notion of superior stability in Islamic compared to conventional banks but of late, there are increasing findings to the contrary. Th...

  • HDC_changes_payment_structure_for_existing_property_purchasers_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2016)

  • Housing Development Corporation (HDC) is a 100% government-owned entity that deals with land administrative matters in Hulhumale, the newly reclaimed island located in the south of North Male Atoll in the Maldives. The land reclamation in Hulhumale was a dream come true for most of Maldives's citizens as land is scarce and the only way to acquire new land was via the reclamation project.

  • HDFC_amna_first_Islamic_window_home_financing_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2012)

  • The Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) of the Maldives has launched an Islamic window offering Islamic home financing facilities, registered as HDFC Amna. The establishment of an Islamic window by HDFC is an achievement for the promotion of Islamic finance in the Maldives as it is the first of its kind. Mohamed Shaheem Ali Saeed, the minister for Islamic affairs, stated that it was a remarkable day in the history of Maldives as the creation of HDFC Amna was initiated with the assistance of local experts in the field of Islamic finance.

  • HDFC_maldives_issue_second_sukuk_April_2017_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2017)

  • HDFC Maldives has submitted to the Capital Market Development Authority of the Maldives its proposal to issue its second sukuk in April 2017. This will be the second corporate sukuk to be listed on the Maldives Stock Exchange; the last sukuk facility was issued in 2013.

  • heads_we_win_tails_you_lose_is_there_equity_in_Islamic_equity_funds_obiya.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mustaffa Kamil, Nazrol Kamil; Alhabshi, Syed Othman; Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2014)

  • We made the first estimate of the proportion of fund alpha statistically attributable to luck rather than skill for a sample of Malaysian Islamic equity funds. Broadly, the funds do not outperform market benchmarks. In the limited instances where performance is superior, based on a contemporary methodology, as much as 47% of the observed positive fund alpha is statistically attributable to luck. Thus, at 5% significance level, we find only 1.95% of our funds to be genuinely skilled. Our findings raise questions regarding the equitability of these funds levying fixed fees, making a case for potential innovation in fund remuneration structure.

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Mohd Hodori, Muhammad 'Arif (2017)

  • Herding behaviour refers to an alignment of thoughts or behaviours of individuals in a group. In the case of capital market, it has been studied by several researchers such as Chang et al. (2000) and (Gavriilidis et al., 2015). Being a multicultural and multiracial country, and one of the main markets for the Islamic capital market, Malaysia provides a conducive landscape for the study of herding behaviour. The main motive for conducting this study is to investigate the presence of herding behaviour in Malaysia's religious holiday period, it's characteristic in reference to all securities and shariah-compliant securities ...

  • PhD_High_quality_liquid_sukuk_for_megabank_MDB_lab_portfolio_Abdullah.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Karatas, Abdullah (2017)

  • Among the available liquidity management instruments in Islamic banking, only sukuk of a particular type meet the requirements of HQLA (in principle) as defined by the Basel Committee and adapted for Islamic finance by the IFSB (Islamic Financial Services Board) (IFSB, 2017). Candidates for HQLA are only international sukuk, i.e. sukuk that are issued in an international currency, sukuk that are also publicly listed, and sukuk that are traded not only locally but also internationally. Sovereigns and international institutions such as the IDB (Islamic Development Bank) have issued almost all sukuk of this caliber. In this PhD thesis, the research will make empirically informed qualitat...

  • High_time_for_Islamic_banks_to_show_they_are_indeed_value_based_intermediaries_Kinan et al.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen; Kinan Salim; Baharom Abdul Hamid; Ziyaad Mahomed; Noor Haini Akmal Abu Bakar; Wiaam Hassan (2020)

  • The novel COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented human crisis around the globe. The necessary actions implemented to contain the virus have sparked both economic and social downturn. It shows the fragility and unpreparedness of the economy to face such a pandemic. Significant weakening of economic conditions has escalated the pressure on households, businesses and financial markets. Governments all over the globe are in the process of formulating and implementing appropriate policies to continue economic activities amidst this turmoil. Financial institutions are obligated to respond towards the policies adopted by respective governments.

  • hilah_in_the_Islamic_banking_instruments_in_Malaysia_aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Nik Yusuf, Nik Nurul Atiqah; Mohd Iqbal, Norariefah; Noor Mohamad, Juyda (2011)

  • The main focus of this paper is to identify the hilah committed in the Islamic banking and finance instruments in Malaysia with reference to other jurisdictions and analyse the complexity in ascertaining the legal status of such practice either in equity or debt based financing when its practice associates with the interest of the people and a need to fulfill the maqasid al-Shariah. At the end of the paper, the authors would attempt to answer the question whether there is a need to uniform the Islamic banking instruments in all the jurisdictions of the world to facilitate cross-border transactions.

  • Historical_development_of_Islamic_venture_capital_Said.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Rusni Hassan; Sa'id Adekunle Mikail; Muhamad Arifin (2011)

  • Venture capital is commonly defined as medium to long-term equity investment provided for unlisted companies to finance their start up, expansion, survival and change of ownership. The origin of which was traced back to mudharabah; which is commonly translated to Islamic limited partnership. The application of venture capital seems to be abandoned in Muslim world for long, while Western communities get steady development of it. Since the inception of Islamic banks for almost two decades, Islamic banks are also turning a blind eye to venture capital. In spite that venture capital is akin to Islamic bank's principle of profit and loss sharing. The first Islamic bank which was introduced...

  • history of islamic public finance.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Cizakca, Murat (2012)

  • Gharar is usually examined in the literature from the perspective of modern Islamic private finance. In this article, I will focus on public finance and try to explain how this important concept found and application in history. It is a concept that has a long history, and was embedded in Islamic jurist work over centuries of commnets and interpretations.

  • honey_at_the_tip_of_the_tongue_corruption_aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Wisham, Ismail; Muneeza, Aishath (2011)

  • Corruption is a cancer spoiling the society. It inhibits the developed and developing nations to rise above and turn into developed nations. The developing countries are struggling to tackle the issue of corruption. This indeed affects the development of projects and impacts the grassroots by depriving the marginalised of essential benefits. The objective of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis on international corruption, curbing legislations existing in the world today. It is argued here that corruption needs to be curbed at all cost. This article also proposes suggestions on how this issue may be resolved. The authors contend that a single set of legislation against cor...

  • hotel_investment_financing_call_shariah_consideration_new_methodology_assessment_screening_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Lahsasna, Ahcene (2015)

  • It investigates the nature of the hotel business from the Islamic law perspective and its importance in the Malaysian economy. It argues that exclusion of hotel business from Islamic investment and financing activities through Shari'ah screening methodology may be inappropriate. Hence, it recommends that the Shari'ah Advisory Council (SAC) of Securities Commission Malaysia reconsider the assessment and screening process for hotel business in the light of arguments put forward in the research in favour of its Shari'ah compliance.

  • house_financing_contracts_used_Islamic_banks_finished_properties_Malaysia_aishath et al.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Fauzi, Muhammad Fahmi; Mat Nor, Muhammad Faisal; Abideen, Mohamed; Ajroudi, Muhammed Maher (2020)

  • The purpose of this paper is to find out the existing practices of the Islamic banks in providing financing to the customers who have a requirement to purchase a finished property and to examine the existing products used by the Islamic banks in this regard by providing an insight into the modus operandi of these products. In doing this, attempt is made to find out the most famous product offered by the Islamic banks in this regard and to find out whether in reality, Malaysian Islamic banking industry has moved away from Bai Bithaman Ajil (BBA) or not. This is a qualitative research, largely library-based, and it will consist of secondary sources such as books, journals, articles and ...

Browsing by Title

Jump to: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
or enter first few letters:  
Showing results 562 to 581 of 1487
  • Halal_certification_process_for_fisheries_products_Maldives_Aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Mustapha, Zakariya (2020)

  • This paper aims to examine existing halal certification regime in Maldives and address impediments therein that challenge and inhibit the growth of the country's halal industry in relation to fisheries products. This is qualitative research based on first-hand experiences of the authors in the halal certification process in the Maldives. Doctrinal methodology is used in the analysis of primary sources of data, including Maldivian laws and halal certification regulations to identify issues of practical relevance. This is complemented with content analysis of secondary data sourced from journal articles, books, reports and online databases that were examined in identifying hindrances an...

  • handbook_asian_sovereign_bond_markets_yield_risk_cover.jpg.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Ariff, Mohamed; Cheng, Fan Fah; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad (2013)

  • This book is on the pricing of sovereign debt in 17 bond markets across Asia: from Japan in the Far East and Israel in West Asia. The 17 markets include the very large bond market of Japan, which ranks equal among the largest five markets namely in the UK, the USA, Germany and Switzerland. Sovereign debt overhang is allegedly destabilizing the world economy from October 2011, since when the then Eurozone crisis transformed into government debt overhang crisis. This book is about the economics of how the sovereign debts are rated, priced and sold on the basis of perceived risk by investors buying and selling debt instruments. Developed economies' debt burden as a percentage of national...

  • handbook of investable world bond markets.pdf.jpg
  • Book


  • Authors: Ariff, Mohamed; Cheng, Fan Fah; Ramadili Mohd, Shamsher Mohamad (2016)

  • This book identifies how the major and some minor bond markets reacted to interest rate increases and decreases over the recent few years. As every investor knows excessive borrowings relative to the ability to service loans constitute sovereign debt crisis, and it is not limited only to developing countries as shown by the fall in bond values of profligate borrowers such as the Greece. This book is on the pricing of sovereign debt in 17 bond markets across the developed world, ones that have received most of the investors' money as investments.

  • harmonisation_Islamic_finance_reasons_dimensions_akram.pdf.jpg
  • Industry article


  • Authors: Laldin, Mohamad Akram; Furqani, Hafas (2013)

  • Islamic finance is now at the stage of internationalisation, witnessing greater integration between the Islamic financial industry and the global financial system. Islamic finance has gradually evolved to become a dynamic and competitive form of financial intermediation. The Islamic financial industry has been developing ways to facilitate its interaction and integration into the global financial system. We see Islamic finance attracting the attention of the global audience and transcending religious, political and geographical boundaries. It has the potential to be adopted as an alternative to the global financial system...

  • item.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Laldin, Mohamad Akram; Furqani, Hafas (2013)

  • Islamic finance is now at the stage of internationalisation, witnessing greater integration between the Islamic financial industry and the global financial system. Islamic finance has gradually evolved to become a dynamic and competitive form of financial intermediation. The Islamic financial industry has been developing ways to facilitate its interaction and integration into the global financial system. We see Islamic finance attracting the attention of the global audience and transcending religious, political and geographical boundaries. It has the potential to be adopted as an alternative to the global financial system...

  • PhD_Has_the_adoption_of_Islamic_banking_model_based_on_conventional_banks_values_Rosana.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Gulzar Mohd, Rosana (2018)

  • Despite the increase in studies on Islamic banks, there is a number of issues. Firstly, the comparison is with commercial banks although in reality, Islamic banks have strayed from their theoretical foundations of mutuality and profit-sharing. A more apt comparison is thus with cooperative banks, which share similar theoretical foundations with Islamic banks. Secondly, this comparison may unlock the stability puzzle for Islamic banks. While theoretically they are argued to be stabilising, empirically, the evidence is mixed. Several works concur with the notion of superior stability in Islamic compared to conventional banks but of late, there are increasing findings to the contrary. Th...

  • HDC_changes_payment_structure_for_existing_property_purchasers_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2016)

  • Housing Development Corporation (HDC) is a 100% government-owned entity that deals with land administrative matters in Hulhumale, the newly reclaimed island located in the south of North Male Atoll in the Maldives. The land reclamation in Hulhumale was a dream come true for most of Maldives's citizens as land is scarce and the only way to acquire new land was via the reclamation project.

  • HDFC_amna_first_Islamic_window_home_financing_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2012)

  • The Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) of the Maldives has launched an Islamic window offering Islamic home financing facilities, registered as HDFC Amna. The establishment of an Islamic window by HDFC is an achievement for the promotion of Islamic finance in the Maldives as it is the first of its kind. Mohamed Shaheem Ali Saeed, the minister for Islamic affairs, stated that it was a remarkable day in the history of Maldives as the creation of HDFC Amna was initiated with the assistance of local experts in the field of Islamic finance.

  • HDFC_maldives_issue_second_sukuk_April_2017_aishath.pdf.jpg
  • Industry Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath (2017)

  • HDFC Maldives has submitted to the Capital Market Development Authority of the Maldives its proposal to issue its second sukuk in April 2017. This will be the second corporate sukuk to be listed on the Maldives Stock Exchange; the last sukuk facility was issued in 2013.

  • heads_we_win_tails_you_lose_is_there_equity_in_Islamic_equity_funds_obiya.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Mustaffa Kamil, Nazrol Kamil; Alhabshi, Syed Othman; Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath; Mohammed Masih, Abul Mansur (2014)

  • We made the first estimate of the proportion of fund alpha statistically attributable to luck rather than skill for a sample of Malaysian Islamic equity funds. Broadly, the funds do not outperform market benchmarks. In the limited instances where performance is superior, based on a contemporary methodology, as much as 47% of the observed positive fund alpha is statistically attributable to luck. Thus, at 5% significance level, we find only 1.95% of our funds to be genuinely skilled. Our findings raise questions regarding the equitability of these funds levying fixed fees, making a case for potential innovation in fund remuneration structure.

  • item.jpg
  • Master


  • Authors: Mohd Hodori, Muhammad 'Arif (2017)

  • Herding behaviour refers to an alignment of thoughts or behaviours of individuals in a group. In the case of capital market, it has been studied by several researchers such as Chang et al. (2000) and (Gavriilidis et al., 2015). Being a multicultural and multiracial country, and one of the main markets for the Islamic capital market, Malaysia provides a conducive landscape for the study of herding behaviour. The main motive for conducting this study is to investigate the presence of herding behaviour in Malaysia's religious holiday period, it's characteristic in reference to all securities and shariah-compliant securities ...

  • PhD_High_quality_liquid_sukuk_for_megabank_MDB_lab_portfolio_Abdullah.pdf.jpg
  • PhD


  • Authors: Karatas, Abdullah (2017)

  • Among the available liquidity management instruments in Islamic banking, only sukuk of a particular type meet the requirements of HQLA (in principle) as defined by the Basel Committee and adapted for Islamic finance by the IFSB (Islamic Financial Services Board) (IFSB, 2017). Candidates for HQLA are only international sukuk, i.e. sukuk that are issued in an international currency, sukuk that are also publicly listed, and sukuk that are traded not only locally but also internationally. Sovereigns and international institutions such as the IDB (Islamic Development Bank) have issued almost all sukuk of this caliber. In this PhD thesis, the research will make empirically informed qualitat...

  • High_time_for_Islamic_banks_to_show_they_are_indeed_value_based_intermediaries_Kinan et al.pdf.jpg
  • Newsletter & Bulletin


  • Authors: Shinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen; Kinan Salim; Baharom Abdul Hamid; Ziyaad Mahomed; Noor Haini Akmal Abu Bakar; Wiaam Hassan (2020)

  • The novel COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented human crisis around the globe. The necessary actions implemented to contain the virus have sparked both economic and social downturn. It shows the fragility and unpreparedness of the economy to face such a pandemic. Significant weakening of economic conditions has escalated the pressure on households, businesses and financial markets. Governments all over the globe are in the process of formulating and implementing appropriate policies to continue economic activities amidst this turmoil. Financial institutions are obligated to respond towards the policies adopted by respective governments.

  • hilah_in_the_Islamic_banking_instruments_in_Malaysia_aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Nik Yusuf, Nik Nurul Atiqah; Mohd Iqbal, Norariefah; Noor Mohamad, Juyda (2011)

  • The main focus of this paper is to identify the hilah committed in the Islamic banking and finance instruments in Malaysia with reference to other jurisdictions and analyse the complexity in ascertaining the legal status of such practice either in equity or debt based financing when its practice associates with the interest of the people and a need to fulfill the maqasid al-Shariah. At the end of the paper, the authors would attempt to answer the question whether there is a need to uniform the Islamic banking instruments in all the jurisdictions of the world to facilitate cross-border transactions.

  • Historical_development_of_Islamic_venture_capital_Said.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Rusni Hassan; Sa'id Adekunle Mikail; Muhamad Arifin (2011)

  • Venture capital is commonly defined as medium to long-term equity investment provided for unlisted companies to finance their start up, expansion, survival and change of ownership. The origin of which was traced back to mudharabah; which is commonly translated to Islamic limited partnership. The application of venture capital seems to be abandoned in Muslim world for long, while Western communities get steady development of it. Since the inception of Islamic banks for almost two decades, Islamic banks are also turning a blind eye to venture capital. In spite that venture capital is akin to Islamic bank's principle of profit and loss sharing. The first Islamic bank which was introduced...

  • history of islamic public finance.pdf.jpg
  • Chapter in Book


  • Authors: Cizakca, Murat (2012)

  • Gharar is usually examined in the literature from the perspective of modern Islamic private finance. In this article, I will focus on public finance and try to explain how this important concept found and application in history. It is a concept that has a long history, and was embedded in Islamic jurist work over centuries of commnets and interpretations.

  • honey_at_the_tip_of_the_tongue_corruption_aishath.PDF.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Wisham, Ismail; Muneeza, Aishath (2011)

  • Corruption is a cancer spoiling the society. It inhibits the developed and developing nations to rise above and turn into developed nations. The developing countries are struggling to tackle the issue of corruption. This indeed affects the development of projects and impacts the grassroots by depriving the marginalised of essential benefits. The objective of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis on international corruption, curbing legislations existing in the world today. It is argued here that corruption needs to be curbed at all cost. This article also proposes suggestions on how this issue may be resolved. The authors contend that a single set of legislation against cor...

  • hotel_investment_financing_call_shariah_consideration_new_methodology_assessment_screening_ahcene.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Lahsasna, Ahcene (2015)

  • It investigates the nature of the hotel business from the Islamic law perspective and its importance in the Malaysian economy. It argues that exclusion of hotel business from Islamic investment and financing activities through Shari'ah screening methodology may be inappropriate. Hence, it recommends that the Shari'ah Advisory Council (SAC) of Securities Commission Malaysia reconsider the assessment and screening process for hotel business in the light of arguments put forward in the research in favour of its Shari'ah compliance.

  • house_financing_contracts_used_Islamic_banks_finished_properties_Malaysia_aishath et al.pdf.jpg
  • Journal Article


  • Authors: Muneeza, Aishath; Fauzi, Muhammad Fahmi; Mat Nor, Muhammad Faisal; Abideen, Mohamed; Ajroudi, Muhammed Maher (2020)

  • The purpose of this paper is to find out the existing practices of the Islamic banks in providing financing to the customers who have a requirement to purchase a finished property and to examine the existing products used by the Islamic banks in this regard by providing an insight into the modus operandi of these products. In doing this, attempt is made to find out the most famous product offered by the Islamic banks in this regard and to find out whether in reality, Malaysian Islamic banking industry has moved away from Bai Bithaman Ajil (BBA) or not. This is a qualitative research, largely library-based, and it will consist of secondary sources such as books, journals, articles and ...