Browse by Topic "Islamic banking"
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- PublicationA risk sharing banking modelAbbas Mirakhor; Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha (2015)
Islamic banking has thus far mimicked conventional banking with the result that the same problems and outcomes have surfaced, even though it is operating within an interest free framework. This apparent "convergence" has led to disaffection both among consumers of Islamic banking services and policy makers. This paper proposes a risk sharing model for Islamic banks that can potentially pull Islamic banking away from this path dependency. Under the proposal an Islamic bank's assets would be securitized by the issuance of sukuk type instruments that have the same underlying contract and average "duration" as customer financing. Small assets may have to be pooled into tranches of similar maturity before being securitized. Medium and larger assets would have papers issued directly against them. Thus, instead of depositors, an Islamic bank would have thousands of sukuk holders, all of whom share the profits and losses arising from their respective tagged asset. Other than Wadiah based safe custody accounts and current accounts against which the bank holds cash, all other depositors would be "sold" sukuk for the amount, duration and risk level that they prefer. The model has several advantages such as, minimizing systemic risk through risk dissipation and reducing the liquidity mismatch inherent to banking. The securitized papers provide new liquidity instruments and can enhance liquidity within the Islamic finance sector. Where the macro economy is concerned, the proposal enhances system stability by reducing risk concentration within the banking system, substantially widens financial inclusion by way of small denomination sukuk and minimizes the contingent liabilities of governments by avoiding the use of deposit insurance.
- PublicationAccounting issues in the reporting of profit sharing investment accounts in Islamic banks' financial statements under IFSA 2013Romzie Rosman; Nur Ashikin Mohd Saat; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Fairooz Abdul Khir (ISRA, 2015)
Issues in the reporting of Islamic financial instruments have been discussed since early 2000. Among these issues is the debate about whether the accounting standards promulgated by the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) should be adopted for reporting Islamic financial transactions. Abdel Karim (2001) explained the need to implement the AAOIFI accounting standards as these standards specifically cater for the unique characteristics of the contracts that govern the operations of Islamic banks. The IFRS, on the other hand, do not have any specific reporting standards for the unique contracts adopted by Islamic banks but report the transactions based on the accounting principle of substance over form.
- PublicationActual costs in fees and charges in Islamic bankingMohamed Fairooz Abdul Khir (ISRA, 2014)
A bank is a financial intermediary that generates income from its fund-based and fee-based products and services. As for the former, the bank has to share the profits with parties from whom it sources funds such as depositors and shareholders to provide financing facilities for its customers. Unlike its fund-based products and services, the bank can recognise any profit generated from its fee-based products and services solely as its own income without having to share it with other parties as it does not utilise others' money in offering such products and services.
- PublicationAdapting mudarabah financing to contemporary realities: a proposed financing structureObiyathulla Ismath Bacha (Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2014)
Islamic banking in Malaysia, despite its recent start, has seen very rapid growth. This growth however has beem uneven. While short-term trade financing has always been dominant and grown rapidly, Mudarabah financing by Islamic banks in Malaysia has reduced to insignificant amounts. Yet, Mudarabah which is based on profit and loss sharing has always been considered to be at the core of Islamic financing and in tune with the shariah's injunctions against interest based financing
- PublicationAl-bay' bithaman ajil financing: impacts on Islamic banking performanceSaiful Azhar Rosly (John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999)
The dual-banking system in Malaysia is expected to put Islamic banks at a disadvantage due to the latter's over-dependency on fixed rate asset financing such as al-bay' bithaman qjil and murabuhah. When interest rates are rising, rational product choice among non-Muslim customers is expected to produce a shifting effect that may frustrate deposit mobilization and at the same time able deplete an Islamic bank's earnings. The shifting effect occurs when NMC either transfer deposits from Islamic banks to conventional banks, or, in a period of declining interest rates, opt for loans rather than for deferred sale financing. These shifts occur solely due to pecuniary incentives sought by NMC as the suppliers of deposits or demanders of funds. During an economic slowdown normally accompanied by falling interest rates, the shifting effect is expected to increase idle balances as the demand for fixed rate asset financing declines. Thus, in the choice of banking products, it is argued that NMCs will be the main beneficiaries of the dual-banking system since they are open to more options than the Muslim customers (MC). Consistent with these expectations, we find that profit margins of Bank Islam Malaysia suffered a decline between the 1996-1997 period of rising interest rates while interest margins of conventional banks showed a rising trend.
- PublicationAl-jam' bayn al-'uqud fi al-muntajat al-maliyyah al-IslamiyyahAbdul Muneem; Mohamed Fairooz Abdul Khir (ISRA, 2015)
An abstract is written in Arabic.
- PublicationAlternative dispute resolution in Islamic banking and finance: a paradigm shift in arbitrationNik Sarina Lugman Hashim; Zainal Azam Abdul Rahman; Ahcene Lahsasna (INCEIF, 2013)
This research will look at the reasons for the civil courts being the preferred mode of dispute resolution for Islamic finance disputes in Malaysia and how arbitration, based on the shari'ah can play an active role to resolve disputes in Islamic finance cases. Various features of arbitration in general and Islamic arbitration in particular will be looked into, followed by a study of the arbitration rules under two arbitration centres to find the common themes of these centres and the differences in their approach, if any ...
- PublicationAn analysis of market structure and competitive dynamics in dual banking systemsKinan Salim (INCEIF, 2017)
Islamic banks have proliferated and emerged as important players in the global banking industry especially in the Muslim-Majority countries. The recent increase in the number and market share of Islamic banks has intensified the competition in this new industry. Despite its importance, the increasing competition in Islamic banking market not only from its own Islamic peers, but also from commercial banks has not been adequately addressed nor its consequences have been investigated. This summary aims to shed the light the market structure and the evolution of the competition under dual banking system.
- PublicationThe application of ju'alah in Islamic finance: the Malaysian perspectiveIsmail Mohd Mohamed; Mohd Rafede; Aishath Muneeza (New Millennium Discoveries, 2020)
Ju'alah is one of the least researched types of Shariah contracts used in Islamic finance. The objective of this paper is to explore the current and potential applications of Ju'alah with specific reference to Malaysian Islamic banking, takaful and the Islamic capital market. This paper establishes that there is potential for using Ju'alah in Islamic finance as a primary and/or secondary contract. It also establishes that Ju'alah can be used in takaful, though it is not being currently used for this in Islamic banking and the Islamic capital market in Malaysia. It is anticipated that the findings of this paper will improve understanding of the practice of Ju'alah in the Malaysian Islamic finance industry.
- PublicationApplication of law of evidence to Islamic banking with special reference to MalaysiaAishath Muneeza (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017)
This research aims to deal with the law of evidence invoked in Islamic banking cases reported in Malaysia from 1983 to 2015 and determine whether the invoked provisions of the statute in the case law have any conflicts with Islamic law that are threatening the development of Islamic banking in Malaysia. The methodology used in this research is assessing the implication by studying the provisions of the law of evidence that has been invoked in the reported case law. It is evident from this research that following are the evident conflicts found in the Evidence Act 1950. In this arena, the following changes are significant for sustaining Islamic banking in Malaysia. Expert opinion under Section 45 of the Evidence Act 1950 should be amended such that in Islamic banking, under this Act, expert opinion can be sought by the court. The rule and exceptions of parol evidence in Sections 91 and 92 of the Evidence Act 1950 need to be amended such that in Islamic banking matters, anything that is contrary to Shariah is mentioned in the contract; this amendment will be an exception to the parol evidence rule on the grounds that the written Islamic contract can be amended or set aside depending on the circumstances of the case.
- PublicationApplication of parol evidence rule to Islamic banking in MalaysiaAishath Muneeza (2016)
Islamic banking is called shariah compliant banking as all transactions conducted in the banking transaction starting from product offering stage until the dispute resolution stage shall comply with the principles of Islamic law. As such the objective of this paper is to find out the application of parol evidence rule to Islamic banking in Malaysia and to find out whether the application of parol eveidence is compliant with the principles of Islamic law or not.
- PublicationThe application of Rule 78 in vehicle financing by Islamic banks in MalaysiaOmaima Eltahir Babikir Mohamed (INCEIF, 2017)
Al-Ijarah Thumma al-Bay' (AITAB) is an innovative product designed for vehicle financing. Since its inception, AITAB has been a popular product due to the heightened demand by customers. Although AITAB is popular, it is not without condemn especially on the issue of using Rule 78, which is similar to conventional Hire-Purchase practise. This paper, attempts to address the issue of using Rule 78 which affects the customers in the case of default. A case study is used to compare the use of Rule 78 and simple profit rate methods on repaying the principal amount and the profit rate by the customer. The discussion is based upon the case on vehicle financing for three years and the impact on the defaulter on the thirteenth month of financing. The result shows the customer pays higher amount in the case of default using the Rule 78 in financing compared to simple profit rate method.
- PublicationApplication of statutes of limitations to Islamic banking: the case of MalaysiaZakariya Mustapha; Aishath Muneeza (Fakulti Ekonomi dan Muamalat, USIM, 2020)
Limitations of action designate extent of time after an event, as set by statutes of limitations, within which legal action can be initiated by a party to a transaction. No event is actionable outside the designated time as same is rendered statute-barred. This study aims to provide an insight into application and significance of Limitations Act 1950 and Limitation Ordinance 1952 to Islamic banking matters in Malaysia as well as Shariah viewpoint on the issue of limitation of action. In conducting the study, a qualitative research methodology is employed where reported Islamic banking cases from 1983 to 2018 in Malaysia were reviewed and analysed to ascertain the application of those statutes of limitations to Islamic banking. Likewise, relevant provisions of the statutes as invoked in the cases were examined to determine possible legislative conflicts between the provisions and the rule of Islamic law in governing the right and limitation of action in Islamic banking cases under the law. The reviewed cases show the extent to which statutes of limitations were invoked in Malaysian courts in determining validity of Islamic banking matters. The limitation provisions so referred to are largely sections 6(1)(a) and 21(1) Limitations Act 1953 and section 19 Limitation Ordinance 1953, which do not conflict with Shariah viewpoint on the matter. This study will prove invaluable to financial institutions and their customers alike in promoting knowledge and creating awareness over actionable event in the course of their transactions.
- PublicationApplication of ta'widh and gharamah in Islamic banking in MalaysiaNur Adibah Zainudin; Ruqayyah Ali; Siti Nadzirah Ibrahim; Zakariya Mustapha; Aishath Muneeza (Fakulti Ekonomi dan Muamalat, USIM, 2019)
The objective of this paper is to explore the practical application of ta'widh and gharamah in Islamic banking in Malaysia with reference to the guidelines that are applicable to date; and find out the issues detected in the implementation of them. In the course of doing this, Shariah reasons for imposing ta'widh and gharamah in Islamic banking are discussed. Also, whether ta'widh and gharamah would be required for Islamic banking with reference to possible alternatives to them is also discussed. This qualitative study primarily focuses on library research and adopts case study approach for analyzing the application of ta'widh and gharamah. The jurisdiction of the study is Malaysia because the central bank of the country has made policies on the matter. The paper draws on observations made by Shariah scholars about the policies on the subject matter. This study gives an insight into the history and issues related to ta'widh and gharamah which are often kept tacit. It is recommended that future studies should look into the effectiveness of these two approaches to serve as a deterrent factor and contribute to the declining rate of non-performing financing in Islamic banks.
- PublicationApproaches to Islamic banking in the GulfWilson, Rodney (Gerlach Press, 2012)
Islamic banking is more developed in the Gulf region that anywhere else in the world. Although there is much information and writings on Islamic banking on the Arab side of the Gulf, much less is available on the workings of the Islamic banking system in Iran. The aim here is to examine the very different approaches taken by Iran and its Guld Arab neighbors to Islamic banking. The political factors that determined these different approaches will be analyzed and their implications explored.
- PublicationAre deposit and investment accounts in Islamic banks in Malaysia interest-free?Mohd Rasid, Mohamed Eskandar Shah; Shamsher Mohamad Ramadili Mohd (King Abdulaziz University, 2014)
Islamic banking and Finance (IBF) provides products and services guided by the Shariah. Therefore, they are supposed to be different from their conventional counterparts. Islamic deposit rates should be different from conventional deposit rates. Islamic banking profit rates are supposedly less risky due to risksharing attribute embedded in their structure as compared to the conventional banking interest rates on similar-risk investment products. This paper addresses this concern by examining the differences in the monthly fixed deposit rates of conventional and investment deposit rates of Islamic banks and finance companies in Malaysia for the period from January 1994 to December 2012 and determines the causality relationship between profit rates and interest rates on these investments. The findings suggest that profit rates of Islamic banks are significantly linked with interest rates of conventional banks.
- PublicationAre Islamic banks suffering from a model misfit? Comparison with cooperative banksRosana Gulzar; Mohamed Ariff Abdul Kareem; Mansor H. Ibrahim (Bank Indonesia Institute, 2020)
For the first time, this study investigates whether, in mimicking conventional banks, Islamic banks have become less stable than their theoretical equivalent: cooperative banks in Europe. Theoretically, the prohibition of interest should have pushed Islamic banks towards mutuality and profit-sharing, which have been argued as stabilising. In practice, however, banks are pushed for growth under a debt-driven commercial banking model, which is not only antithetical to the Shariah but is also destabilising. This may explain why empirical findings are still divergent in Islamic banking stability studies. Our study employs the generalised method of moments (GMM) system to compare the stability of 37 Islamic banks against 1,536 cooperative banks in Europe during the 2008 crisis and post-non-crisis years. Interestingly, we found consistent and significant evidence that Islamic banks are less stable than cooperative banks in both macroeconomic conditions. This has significant policy implications, the most important of which is to steer reform efforts away from refurbishing Islamic commercial banks and towards building an entirely new Islamic cooperative bank, based on the model in Europe.
- PublicationAssessing ethical praxis of ethical (Islamic) financial institutions: a survey of empirical discoveriesShinaj Valangattil Shamsudheen; Saiful Azhar Rosly; Aishath Muneeza (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2023)
This study aims to portray the ethical disposition of Islamic financial institutions (IFIs) globally by investigating the ethical gap identified in the empirical literature to date. Two methods of analysis used in this study are content analysis and ratio analysis. While the former was conducted to identify the main themes of empirical studies and to gauge the gap between theory and practice of ethical principles and business practice in the Islamic banking and financial industry, the latter quantified the intensity of the gap identified. The findings indicate that global ethical practices were found to be above medial, and the South East Asian region stood out with a relatively better performance along with the subpar performance of the African region. Among the ethical parameters, the praxis of marketing ethics was found to be distinctly aligned with the principles, and the organizational ethical decision-making behaviour was held to be least harmonized with the norms. The findings of this study help researchers and regulators to better understand the issues and provide practical solutions to address the shortfalls of ethics in Islamic finance in practice. In spite of the vast literature, comprehension of the overarching ethical standing of IFIs is still equivocal. This study contributes to the growing literature of ethical and/or Islamic finance primarily in two ways. Firstly, it provides a comprehensive depiction of the ethical standings of the IFIs all around the globe, which can be treated as a guiding document for regulators and industry practitioners to better understand the issues and provide practical solutions to address the shortfalls of ethics in Islamic finance in practice. Secondly, it helps researchers identify research gaps and provides a systematic direction for future studies in the area of ethics in Islamic finance.
- PublicationAwareness of Islamic banking and finance: the case of KyrgyzstanAzamat Nazarbaev; Obiyathulla Ismath Bacha (INCEIF, 2016)
The paper examines the level of awareness of the people in the Kyrgyz Republic about Islamic Banking and Finance and whether they are willing to adopt an Islamic financial system in the country. It also attempts to explore population's opinion of the mechanism of the banking business in general. Questionnaire forms were developed and distributed among 300 nationals. It has been found that while a small proportion of the practicing Muslims have some notion of Islamic Banking and Finance, non-practicing Muslims and non-Muslims almost completely lack in this field of knowledge ...
- PublicationBank competition and stability in dual-banking systemsMoutaz Abojeib (CIAWM, 2016)
Numerous attempts have been made to discover the effect of competition on banking stability, before and after the recent global financial crisis. Despite the rich theoretical and empirical literature on the topic, two contradictory views are observed; the competition-fragility view and the competition stability view. On one hand, the former view argues that higher competition leads to more pressure on profits and hence induces banks' management to take higher risk strategies. On the other, the supporters of the competition-stability hypothesis argue that banks in more competitive markets tend to charge lower rates, which reduces the entrepreneurs' cost of borrowing and increases the success rate of entrepreneurs' investments. Consequently, banks will face lower credit risk on their loan portfolio in more competitive markets, which should lead to more stability.
- PublicationBank financing and risk: the case of Islamic banksMansor H. Ibrahim (World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, 2023)
The paper assesses the risk implications of rapid Islamic financing growth after the Global Financial crisis and whether financing - risk relations are more reflective of large Islamic banks. Employing a panel regression methodology and a sample of 72 Islamic banks from 14 countries over the period 2010-2019, our analysis indicates that Islamic financing growth does lead to credit risk deterioration up to two years ahead. We note further that Islamic banks are "too small to succeed" in that the risk effect of financing growth is more apparent for small Islamic banks. But, once an Islamic bank reaches a certain size threshold, it demonstrates ability to manage and mitigate credit risk arising from its financing activities. Based on these results, we conclude that Islamic banks need to be bigger.
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